9 Domains of GNH
USA; fair use, educational)
an evil money system
we have where “...economic interests trump human rights in
most instances.” (BBC,
1m54s, posted and accessed 4 April 2019)
So, this page looks
at some alternatives to the current money systems of capitalism and communism.
Until we can do away with money.
Wellbeing Economy/GNH vs. GDP
great breakthrough of the twenty first century will be to begin to
success and failure in life other than merely through financial
(Alain de Botton)
must rapidly begin
the shift from a thing-oriented society to a person-oriented society. When
computers, profit motives and property rights, are considered more
than people, the giant triplets of racism, extreme materialism, and
are incapable of being conquered." (Martin Luther King Jr. 1967
speech, cited here,
accessed 16 October 2012)
Basic Income (UBI)
is required - see here
This can reduce or eradicate poverty and slavery. It supports real
freedom and the power to say "no".
Also see here,
- Subsistence Economy + UBI.
Subsistence is supporting oneself at a minimal
level. Here are some ideas:-
Taylor, an environmentalist, suggests a home with a
plot and a basic income for
those who farm that plot for themselves and the local
community. (Based on a 2018 conversation; idea
may not be accurately conveyed)
lifestyles have detached us from nature and
also our natural state of being. Many people yearn to live a simple
their own smallholding. This is a desire to regain our natural state
us by historic acts of land dispossession. The past confiscatory
actions of the
powerful have driven the human race out of necessity to find and invent
ways of providing a livelihood - much of it incompatible with our true
It is also the fundamental cause of our current malaise in terms of
climate and biodiversity. We now have mass indoctrination by the
society's leeches to make us think that all economic activity is
So much of what we make and do is fruitless, or even worse, harmful.
based on negative, adverse and anti-social production is just as
the activities themselves. Return the land to the people and many will
again a healthy, environment-friendly "subsistence" economy. (oneness, posted
22 November 2019, accessed
23 October 2020)
see 'Private Sufficiency, Public Luxury' below.
have enough is
happiness, to have more than enough is harmful. That is true of all
especially of money." (Lao-Tse)
Love, Love - NOT growth, growth, growth! Degrowth is the Love we need.
The 9 Domains of GNH [click to enlarge]
The World We Deserve
- As a basic human right, everyone deserves healthy, organic food. Also see 'Universal Basic Services'.
- Everyone has a home, supplied with clean water and sanitation. Also see 'Universal Basic Services'.
- The Sun
gives its energy for free and humans make sure solar energy is given
free to everyone. Also see 'Universal Basic Services'.
- Equality - The superrich and corporations need to be taxed heavily. This will fund UBI and UBS. Incomes need to be capped. The difference between highest and lowest incomes needs to be minimised. And so much more...
- Thank you for robots!
- In terms of money, it has been found that a person living in the Rich
World needs no more than about $70,000 or £55,000 per year to
happy (see here).
Anything more does not bring extra happiness. Perhaps we need to cap
anyone's income at this amount and redistribute the rest?...
Basic Income - See above
basic income (also known as a citizen's income) gives everyone, rich
without means-testing or conditions, a guaranteed sum every week. It
some but not all benefits (there would, for instance, be extra payments
pensioners and people with disabilities). It banishes the fear and
now stalking the poorer half of the population. Economic survival
right, not a privilege.
A basic income removes the stigma of benefits while
also breaking open what politicians call the welfare trap. Because
would not reduce your entitlement to social security,
there would be no
disincentive to find a job – all the money you earn is extra
income. The poor
are not forced by desperation into the arms of unscrupulous employers:
will work if conditions are good and pay fair, but will refuse to be
like mules. It redresses the wild imbalance in bargaining power that
current system exacerbates. It could do more than any other measure to
the emotional legacy of serfdom. It would be financed by progressive
(George Monbiot, The Guardian,
posted 1 April 2013, accessed 9
in the future human labour is less needed, keeping societies stitched
may require us to reinvent the welfare state. Not all economists think
worth worrying about just yet. But those who do are reviving an idea
back to Thomas More and his 1516 book, Utopia - a universal basic
does seem utopian, in the sense of fantastically unrealistic. Could we
imagine a world in which everyone gets a regular cash handout, enough
their basic needs, no questions asked?
evidence suggests it's worth
considering. In the 1970s, the idea was trialled in a Canadian town
Dauphin. For years, thousands of residents received cheques every
month. And it
turns out that guaranteeing people an income had interesting effects.
teenagers dropped out of school. Fewer people were admitted to hospital
mental health problems. Hardly anyone gave up work. New trials are
to see if the same thing happens elsewhere.
would, of course, be
expensive. Suppose you gave every American adult, say $12,000
(£9,000) a year.
That would cost 70% of the entire federal budget. It seems impossibly
then, impossibly radical things do sometimes happen, and quickly. In
not a single US state offered old-age pensions. By 1935, Frances
rolled them out across the nation.'
(BBC, posted and accessed
13 November 2017)
'Some contemporary feminists argue that universal basic
income would be a better way of compensating women for the unpaid work
they routinely perform. It would give women the economic freedom to
exit unfulfilling or abusive relationships more easily (although the basic income touted
by supporters like Andrew Yang would need to be higher to achieve that)
and rectify some of the inequalities inherent in a capitalist system
that relies on the unpaid labor of women.'
(Sirin Kale, The Guardian, posted 8 February 2021, accessed 10 February 2021)
- Universal Basic Services
- These are basic public services that enable survival, that need to be
provided to all by Government for free. They include: income (UBI), housing, food, water, health, education, transport, internet, clean energy. Read more here.
- 'Private Sufficiency, Public
Luxury' - A world where we all can access luxury, but
personally we need little. It involves the restitution [the returning of something stolen]
of land/resources to the people (i.e. they are not owned by either
State or privately by investors), then these are managed for the good
of all by communities. We become protectors of the land. It is a way of
creating material security for all. Read/watch more via these links; also see 'Subsistence Economy + UBI' above.
- Mother-centred world
- The mother is the foundation of all things yet she is perhaps the
least valued thing. If we must have a money system, mothers or those
fulfilling that role (e.g. fathers, carers, extended family) need to
receive a payment for their huge contribution to society. Indeed, a UK
political party called Motherworld
suggests this sort of policy. Mothers at the centre of any system,
rather than being marginalised at the periphery. Mother Earth will then
Wellbeing Economy/Happiness Economics/GNH
(Gross National Happiness) etc.
GNH and a wellbeing
economy are economic systems centralising the wellbeing of people and
nature, social justice and equity. They de-emphasise financial
indicators like GDP.
- The Happy Planet Index (NEF) [But may not sufficiently reflect human rights abuses].
- Happiness economics (Wikipedia).
Pillars of GNH (GNH Centre Bhutan).
- The 9 Domains of GNH (GNH Centre Bhutan).
- Charter for
Happiness (GNH USA) [sign
Economy Alliance (WEAll) & Wellbeing Economy Governments (WEGo).
- GPI [Genuine Progress Indicator] (Wikipedia).
- The ethnic cleansing hidden behind Bhutan's happy face (Apoorva Dutt, Firstpost, 2013) [Bhutan's hypocrisy and brutality does not mean that we must throw the baby out with the bathwater].
to create an economy where humans flourish (BBC, 2017) [Anthropologist
Jason Hickel argues we are
'addicted' to economic growth - and it's killing us].
Labour could lead the global economy out of the 20th century
(George Monbiot, The Guardian, 2017) [Private sufficiency and public
- Building a wellbeing economy (Katherine Trebeck, openDemocracy, 2019)
[Meeting the challenges of the 21st century means ending the pursuit of
perpetual growth, and building an economy that is regenerative,
collaborative and purposeful].
puts well-being ahead of GDP in budget (BBC, 2019) [promoting
a "well-being" agenda with Scotland and New Zealand].
a story of life versus growth (Professor Julia Steinberger,
living for all does not have to cost the Earth (Leeds
- We Can Use Less Energy and Still Have Good
"The Doughnut of social and planetary boundaries is a
playfully serious approach to the 21st century challenge of how to
meet the needs of all within the means of the planet." (Kate Raworth adaption)
UBI (Universal Basic Income) etc.
"UBI is an income unconditionally granted to all members
of a political community on an individual basis, without means test or
work requirement. It is high enough to ensure an existence that
preserves personal dignity and allows an individual active
participation in society." (UBIE adaption)
- Universal basic income (Wikipedia).
Basic Income Trust [website
on UBI research].
- Unconditional Basic Income Europe (UBIE).
- Basic Income for All: From Desirability to Feasibility (Lansley and Reed, 2019).
Case for Universal Basic Services (Anna Coote, New Economics
Stimulus Checks Aren’t Good Enough. We Need Universal Basic Income.
(Nicholas Powers, Truthout, 2020) [UBI in USA].
- The Unheard Results of The Finnish Basic Income Experiment (Eetu Lehto, UBIE, 2020) [improves well-being, does not make people lazy, and more].
- Californians on universal basic income paid off debt and got full-time jobs (The Guardian, 2021).
- Post-Covid Britain needs a new social guarantee (Anna Coote and Neal Lawson, The Guardian, 2021) [Ensuring everyone has decent public services and a guaranteed income could transform the UK after the pandemic].
- From basic income to inheritance for all (Thomas Piketty, 2021) [Basic Income, Job Guarantee, Inheritance for All].
"Degrowth is a planned
reduction of energy and resource use designed to bring the economy back
into balance with the living world in a way that reduces inequality and
improves human well-being." (Jason Hickel)
- Life in a 'degrowth' economy, and why you might actually enjoy it (Samuel Alexander, The Conversation, 2014).
- On sacrifice (Professor Julia Steinberger, openDemocracy, 2019).
Definitions of Degrowth (compiled by Timothée Parrique, 2020).
- How affluent people can end their mindless overconsumption (Vox, 2020).
Will Ruin the Earth by 2050, Scientists Say (Vice, 2020).
time for a new economic system (Chris White, Dalhousie University, 2020).
- Growth without economic growth (European Environment Agency, 2021).
- A guide to degrowth: The movement prioritizing wellbeing in a bid to avoid climate cataclysm (CNBC, 2021).
- There’s a simple answer to climate change. But will capitalism allow it? (Bill McGuire, Prospect, 2021).
- What Is Degrowth? Interview with Giorgos Kallis (Dan O'Neill, YouTube, 2021).
- The anti-colonial politics of degrowth (Jason Hickel, Political Geography, 2021).
- What is ‘degrowth’ and how can it fight climate change? (Sara Kiley Watson, Popular Science, 2021) [The cure for a changing climate could be a stagnant economy].
- Exiting the CEE by Reducing Consumption (Prof Julia Steinberger, 2021).
Private Sufficiency and Public Luxury (PSPL)
"Life on Earth
depends on moderation. We need to build a world in which growth is
unnecessary, a world of private sufficiency and public luxury." (George
Consumerism & Materialism - Transform It!
- How Labour could lead the global economy out of the 20th century (George Monbiot, The Guardian, 2017).
- Not capitalism, not communism: George Monbiot on why we need the commons (We Own It, 2018) [20m28s video; there is a 1m21s excerpt here].
- For the sake of life on Earth, we must put a limit on wealth (George Monbiot, The Guardian, 2019)
[It’s not just the megarich: increased spending power leads us
all to inflict environmental damage. It’s time for a radical
- Affluence is killing the planet, warn scientists (Julia K. Steinberger, Manfred Lenzen & Thomas Wiedmann, The Conversation, 2020).
- Private Sufficiency, Public Luxury: Land is the Key to the Transformation of Society (George Monbiot, Schumacher Center, 2020) [Transcription of a 1h53m lecture].
- The Guardian view on the public realm: rebuild the people's palaces (The Guardian, 2021) [Continued underfunding of UK's public services is undermining the social fabric of its cities and towns].
- George Monbiot on PSPL (Hay Festival, 2021) [1m30s video].